The longer I teach (over 11 years at the time of writing), the more anti-exams I have become. For many – teachers, students and parents – exams are the visible benchmarks of progress, not just in music but in education in general. Children and young people are constantly tested, almost from the moment they enter school, and our society is now thoroughly geared to measuring of progress through objective standards or metrics (or “box ticking”). Exams and a structured curriculum are efficient from a teaching point of view as they can help students and teachers measure and compare progress, and the music exam structure allows students to sample music from different periods and genres, improve their technique etc. Many students take graded music exams each year, drawing pride and pleasure from the visible results of their dedication to the practising and study of their chosen instrument: I wouldn’t every wish to denigrate nor deprive students of these achievements – I went through the entire graded music exam system myself as a child and teenager and I drew a lot of satisfaction from it.

But we now live in a culture which is overly obsessed with attainment, competition and grading: the exam certificate is symbolic of “talent” but not necessarily indicative of actual talent, merely an ability to fulfil the requirements of the exam syllabus.  By the time I’d completed all my ABRSM grade exams at 16, I was a competent pianist, but those grade exams did not truly feed nor foster my musicianship and musicality – that came from exploring music by going to concerts and the opera, listening to my parents’ LPs or Radio Three, and my O and A-level music classes, where I learnt how to read and harmonise figured bass, how to compose a simple song accompaniment and how to analyse musical works in detail. I also played the clarinet as a teenager and this gave me the opportunity to learn how to transpose.

All this reminds me of a conversation with my driving instructor on the day I passed my driving test (in my early 30s, after three attempts). He shook my hand, gave me the official piece of paper and then said “Now you’re going to learn how to be a real driver.” Pianist and piano teacher Dylan Christopher expresses this perfectly with reference to music: “You pass the exam when you are ready, but you are not ready just because you passed an exam.” (read Dylan’s At the Piano interview here). What Dyan is of course saying is that grade exams do not necessarily make musicians. Students whose music tuition only follows the exam path may reach Grade 8 having learnt only 24 pieces of music – hardly what could be describe as “varied repertoire”! Nor does this route offer much opportunity for broadening a student’s musical horizons or developing an appreciation of music.

Unfortunately, a lot of parents believe graded music exams are Very Important (interestingly, those who took music exams as children themselves are often less concerned about their own children “doing the grades”). Many don’t really understand that the proper study of music is very broad, far broader than the narrow confines of the exam syllabus. In addition, there’s a lot of competition at the schoolgate, especially if you live in an area populated by high-achieving, ambitious people, as I do (read more on this here), and this competitiveness inevitably filters down to the children: not only are kids being tested to within an inch of their lives at school, they are also being pushed to take music exams by their parents…..

A recent encounter with one of my advanced students reminded me uncomfortably of how exam-driven/exam-obsessed young people are today. Her piano practise time has been eroded by the demands of school work (she is working towards the International Baccalaureate at a respected private school in SW London) and she has not progressed as far as I had hoped with current Grade 8 repertoire (though I am fairly relaxed about this). By the time she enters the Upper Sixth in September, her primary focus will be her schoolwork and university applications (which is how it should be). But she is adamant she wants to take Grade 8 because, to paraphrase her, she wants the “complete set” of graded exams.

This to me is not a valid reason to take an exam. If she had said “Because I enjoy having a goal to work towards, and I really like the music”, I would have been more sympathetic to her decision. But does she really need that Grade 8 certificate to validate her pianistic abilities? I don’t believe she does. She is very musical (she also plays the ‘cello and is involved in drama and dance too), she plays with expression, poise and confidence, and is able to work independently. These abilities are not going to disappear if she doesn’t attain Grade 8. She is already playing Grade 8 and early Diploma repertoire, and I think anyone hearing her would agree she is a very competent and sensitive musician.

Rather than go down the narrow exam route, this student has a number of other options if she wants to put her music before another set of ears and receive formal critical feedback on her playing. She could have her performance assessed by a more senior colleague of mine or she could do a Performance Certificate (Trinity College London offers this option) or a Performance Award (London College of Music – info here). Alternatively, she could continue to work on and play the varied repertoire she enjoys (she’s currently playing a Chopin Waltz and late Nocturne, one of Shostakovich’s Fantastic Dances and Gershwin’s The Man I love – all pieces which offer plenty of technical and artistic challenges), and go on to learn and enjoy other music which will stretch her and allow her to explore the wider piano repertoire. Personally, I feel this approach is far more beneficial to her ongoing musicianship and musicality than the highly artificial process of a formal exam, where one is playing to satisfy a set of criteria set out by the exam board (more box ticking) and the examiner’s personal tastes (to a certain degree).

It’s very encouraging to see music exam boards responding to the changing wishes/needs of music students, particularly adult students, who may want the challenge of taking a music exam without all the technical work and sight-reading/aural tests (the London College of Music Recital Grade for example is a performance-based assessment, with a viva voce). Imaginative syllabuses with a broad range of repertoire and alternative exam formats now offer prospective candidates a far wider range of exam options.

There is no “right way” of course, and as a teacher it is my role to advise and support my students, whichever path they wish to follow.



Further reading

Why do you want to take a piano exam?

Grade Exams Don’t Make Musicians

Be prepared! Ensuring students are exam-ready for success

When I was a child and teenager taking my piano exams, my teachers never talked to me about aspects like performance anxiety or stagecraft/presentation. I went to the exam centre on the allotted day/time, took the exam and went home to await the results. I don’t recall ever being that nervous, perhaps because no teacher ever discussed the anxiety of performance with me…..

In supporting my students as they approach their grade exams, I have a number of tried and tested strategies to ensure they go into the exam room feeling confident, poised and, above all, well-prepared.

The late great Russian pianist Vladimir Horowitz used to say “I know my pieces” ahead of a performance. This is an important mantra: knowing one is well-prepared for an exam or other performance is a crucial aspect of exam preparation and can go a long way in alleviating anxiety, allowing one to play with confidence and musical vibrancy.

For students (with the support of their teacher) this means ensuring pieces are well-learnt and finessed. I encourage my students to think about the individual characters of their exam pieces (and we always try to select a “mini programme” of contrasting styles and moods to allow the student to demonstrate a broad range of technical and musical skills) and how they would like to highlight these characteristics in performance. At least a month ahead of the exam date, I expect students’ pieces to be “concert ready” and we do practise performances in lessons to focus on stagecraft and presentation. Occasionally, a piano teaching friend will come and listen to my students (and vice versa): this is a useful activity as it sets the bar slightly higher for the student by having another person/listener in the room.

In practising technical work (scales/arpeggios and exercises) I encourage accuracy, fluency and musicality. Easy marks can be picked up if technical work is well-learnt and played with good quality of sound and rhythmic cadence (I’m sure examiners would rather hear “musical” scales than monotonous, robotic scales).

I ensure that the other aspects of the exam – aural, sight-reading, musical knowledge – are all well-known and practised well in advance of the exam date.

All these things build confidence, but despite the best efforts of a sympathetic and well-organised teacher, many students feel consumed with anxiety when approaching their music exams. Perfectionist attitudes, issues with confidence and self-esteem, the feeling of being “on show”, exposed on stage or in the exam room, parental pressure, and an understandable wish to do one’s best all contribute to feelings of anxiety. In addition, a previous unhappy exam or performance experience can trigger feelings of inadequacy or nervousness.

When I taught younger children, I tried to make the exam experience feel like an adventure, something exciting and different, and a chance to “show off what you can do”. For all students, I urge them to treat the exam as a “performance” or “mini concert”, and to try and step back from the feeling they are being “judged” and to enjoy the experience, as far as possible.

Specifically in relation to performance anxiety, I reassure students that feeling nervous is “normal” and that top international musicians feel nervous too. We discuss the “whys” and “hows” of anxiety so that they understand it is a natural physiological response (“fight or flight response”) as well as an emotional one. I encourage students to come up with ways to help them personally manage their anxiety – these may include recalling a previous successful/enjoyable performance, using visualisation techniques, NLP, deep breathing and positive affirmation (“I can do it!”). Above all, I remind them that examiners are not looking for bland note-perfect performances but for music which is vibrant and expressive, with good attention to details of dynamics, articulation etc. And I reassure them that I will not be “cross” or disappointed if they don’t achieve a certain mark, that I want them to do their best and enjoy the experience.

For older/more advanced students, exam preparation also involves some discussion about the process of practising and what has been achieved to arrive at the point where the music is ready to be put before an examiner or audience. This understanding of the process and journey of learning is particularly important and helps students see exams in the wider context of ongoing musical development, maturity and progression.

To all students, young and old, beginners to advanced, Good Luck with your exams this summer!

Trinity College of London new piano syllabus – an overview

In July 2014 the new Trinity College of London (TCL) piano grade exam syllabus was released. I have enjoyed teaching the TCL syllabus and my students have enjoyed learning the pieces: some highlights of the previous syllabus include Fanfare for the Common Cold (Grade 2), Allegro Non Troppo (Grade 2), Song of Twilight (Grade 3) and Tapping Heels (Grade 4). To assist in my preparation to teaching the new syllabus, I recently attended a presentation for piano teachers given by Peter Wild, Associate Chief Examiner, and Govind Kharbanda.

One of my main reasons for switching from ABRSM to TCL for graded exams is that TCL focusses on the individual, and the exam structure offers flexibility and choice to enable students to play to their strengths. Part of my teaching philosophy is to encourage students to play with expression and confidence, and I am keen to help them develop performance skills. Performance is at the heart of the TCL graded exams, and the pieces carry a maximum of 66% of the marks available in the exam.


Unlike ABRSM exams where students must select a piece from A, B and C sections (traditionally divided approximately into Baroque/Early Classical, Classical/Romantic and Modern/Jazz/Pop), TCL offers students up to Grade 3 free choice to select pieces which suit their individual strengths and allow students and teachers to create an interesting programme. This helps students understand how to build a contrasting concert programme and is particularly useful for students who wish to study for a Diploma at post-Grade 8 level. All the pieces offer contrasting moods, tempi, character and technical demands, and the syllabus combines well-known works and composers with music by lesser-known composers. There are always pieces with a Jazz-leaning and also some contemporary classical pieces. Arrangements of well-known jazz standards and songs, for example, are always good-quality arrangements. Right from the earliest grade, the pieces offer plenty of opportunities to explore aspects such as dynamics, tone quality, articulation and expression, and the pieces are chosen to encourage further listening and “listening around” the pieces to give students a broader frame of reference and set the music in context. In TCL the emphasis is very much on performance and students are encouraged to consider aspects such as stage craft and presentation. A duet option is also available in the early grades.

In marking the pieces, the marks awarded are subdivided into three areas:

  1. Accuracy & notational fluency – or “me and the music”
  2. Technique – “me and the instrument”
  3. Communication and interpretation – “me and the audience”

Supporting tests

There is also a choice of supporting tests and up to Grade 4 students may select two of the following:

  • Sight-reading
  • Aural
  • Improvisation
  • Musical Knowledge

I have found that many early and younger students find sight-reading at Grade1/2 level very daunting and I prefer to teach it within the context of learning new music, allowing students to develop their sight-reading skills at their own pace.

Musical Knowledge is a useful option and gives the student the opportunity to learn some music theory within the context of the pieces they are playing, thus making the theory relevant.

Many students, particularly boys, find singing in aural tests excruciating, and so in Trinity aural tests there is no singing (except at Grade 1). The test is designed to explore musical understanding, awareness and perception.

Technical work and exercises

Technical requirements in TCL exams are less onerous than in the ABRSM syllabus. Scales and arpeggios are relevant to the pieces, and TCL encourages students to take a musical approach to scales, demonstrating that they can play with fluency, accuracy and good tone. From Grade 4 students must play scales and arpeggios legato and staccato, forte or piano, and from Grade 5 students play scales in major thirds, and arpeggios of the dominant and diminished 7th. In my experience, most young people who want to learn the piano simply want to be able to play well and enjoy playing the piano. For the more serious pianist, the technical requirements in the ABRSM syllabus, where by Grade 5 the student will have learnt scales in all the major and minor keys, is more useful.

For each TCL exam, the student must prepare three short technical exercises. The exercises focus on aspects of technique such as balance, tone, voicing, coordination, and finger and wrist strength and flexibility. The exercises related to various pieces in the syllabus: for example, A Lucky Find (3a, Grade 6) is useful in enabling the student to shape a good cantabile line in Chopin’s Cantabile in B-flat and practises playing chords as an accompaniment. Music lies at the foundation of all the TCL technical requirements, and indeed the entire exam.

Exam report and results

All candidates receive useful feedback on each element of the exam, and results are released quickly, usually within a week of the exam date (certificates take somewhat longer).

I know some teachers hold strong views about the usefulness of exams, and the individual exam boards. At the end of the day, I feel it’s important to find pieces and technical exercises/supporting tests which allow the student to explore a varied range of repertoire and techniques and, above all, to enjoy playing the piano.


Trinity College London – syllabus support

Trinity College YouTube channel – includes an introduction to the grade exams and sample exams to show how the actual exam is conducted